Rachel de Queiroz: As Três Marias - Download Grátis do Livro Completo
As Três Marias: A Classic Novel by Rachel de Queiroz
As Três Marias (The Three Marias) is a classic novel by Rachel de Queiroz, one of the most prominent Brazilian writers of the 20th century. Published in 1939, the novel tells the story of three friends, Maria Augusta (Guta), Maria da Glória, and Maria José (Zezé), from their childhood in a convent school in Fortaleza to their adulthood in different parts of Brazil. Through their perspectives, the novel explores various themes such as friendship, love, marriage, motherhood, education, religion, sexuality, work, and social class. The novel also portrays the realities and challenges of being a woman in Brazil in the 1930s and 1940s, a period marked by political turmoil, economic crisis, social inequality, and cultural change.
Rachel de Queiroz was born in 1910 in Fortaleza, Ceará, a state in the Northeast region of Brazil. She started her literary career at a young age, publishing her first novel, O Quinze (The Fifteen), in 1930. She was also a journalist, a playwright, a translator, a teacher, and an activist. She was one of the founders of the Brazilian Communist Party and participated in several social movements. She was also the first woman to be elected to the Brazilian Academy of Letters in 1977. She died in 2003 in Rio de Janeiro.
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In this article, I will argue that As Três Marias is an important and relevant novel for today's readers because it offers a rich and nuanced portrait of women's lives in Brazil during a crucial historical moment. It also challenges the stereotypes and prejudices that often surround Brazilian women and their culture. Moreover, it inspires readers to reflect on their own choices and values regarding freedom, happiness, and identity.
The Three Friends and Their Different Paths
Maria Augusta (Guta): the narrator and the rebel
The novel is narrated by Maria Augusta (Guta), who is also one of the main protagonists. Guta is a curious, intelligent, adventurous, and independent girl who dreams of seeing the world and having a different life from her conservative family. She is not satisfied with the traditional roles assigned to women in her society, such as being a wife, a mother, or a nun. She wants to have a career, to travel, to learn new things, to express herself freely. She is also interested in politics and social issues.
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Guta's rebellious spirit often leads her to question authority and to break rules. She does not conform to the strict discipline of the convent school or to the moral codes of her religion. She also defies her family and society's expectations of her. She falls in love with a married man, Pedro, who is a journalist and a communist. She decides to leave her hometown and follow him to Rio de Janeiro, where she hopes to find more freedom and opportunities. However, she soon realizes that her relationship with Pedro is not as ideal as she imagined. He is often absent, busy, or unfaithful. He also does not share her enthusiasm for his political cause. Guta feels lonely, frustrated, and betrayed. She decides to end the affair and to pursue her own goals. She becomes a successful writer and travels around the world.
Maria da Glória: the devoted mother and wife
Maria da Glória is the opposite of Guta. She is a quiet, obedient, gentle, and religious girl who accepts the role of being a good wife and mother without questioning it. She believes that marriage and family are the sources of happiness and fulfillment for women. She does not have any ambitions or interests outside her domestic sphere. She is content with her simple and routine life.
Maria da Glória marries a wealthy and respectable man, Raul, who is much older than her. He treats her well, but he is also distant and authoritarian. He does not allow her to have any friends or hobbies. He controls everything she does and says. He also expects her to bear him many children, even though she suffers from health problems. Maria da Glória obeys him without complaint. She dedicates herself entirely to her husband and her children. She sacrifices her own happiness and well-being for them.
Maria José (Zezé): the religious and lonely teacher
Maria José (Zezé) is a shy, timid, sensitive, and studious girl who loves reading and learning. She has a strong faith in God and wants to become a nun. She thinks that the convent is the best place for her, where she can be close to God and away from the troubles of the world. She does not care about love or marriage. She does not trust men or herself.
However, her plans change when she meets a young priest, Padre Assunção, who becomes her spiritual guide and confessor. Zezé develops a secret crush on him, which makes her feel guilty and confused. She realizes that she cannot be a nun anymore, but she also cannot confess her feelings to him. She decides to leave the convent and become a teacher in a small town in the countryside. There, she lives a lonely and isolated life. She does not make any friends or have any fun. She devotes herself to her work and her religion. She also writes letters to Padre Assunção, hoping that he will reply.
How their friendship evolves over time and reflects their choices
The three Marias meet at the convent school when they are nine years old. They become inseparable friends, sharing their secrets, dreams, fears, and joys. They also support each other through their difficulties and challenges. They promise to always stay in touch and to never forget each other.
However, as they grow up and follow different paths in life, their friendship changes as well. They lose contact for many years, until they reunite at Guta's wedding in Rio de Janeiro when they are thirty years old. They are happy to see each other again, but they also feel the distance and the differences between them. They realize that they have grown apart and that they have little in common anymore.
The novel ends with Guta writing a letter to Zezé, telling her about her life after the wedding. She says that she is happy with her new husband, Paulo, who is also a writer and a traveler. She says that she has finally found freedom and happiness in her own terms. She also asks Zezé about her life and hopes that she is happy too. The Many Women and Their Struggles
The role of women in Brazilian society in the 1930s and 1940s
The novel As Três Marias reflects the role of women in Brazilian society in the 1930s and 1940s, a time of great social and cultural transformations. Brazil was undergoing a process of modernization and industrialization, which brought new opportunities and challenges for the country and its people. The novel shows how these changes affected the lives of women, who had to deal with the contradictions and conflicts between tradition and modernity, between patriarchy and feminism, between domesticity and public sphere.
Women in Brazil at that time were expected to follow the norms and values of a conservative and Catholic society, which valued family, marriage, motherhood, and obedience as the main roles and duties of women. Women were supposed to be submissive, virtuous, modest, and faithful to their husbands and fathers. They were not supposed to have any education, career, or political participation. They were not supposed to have any sexual or personal freedom. They were not supposed to have any voice or agency.
However, some women started to challenge these expectations and to demand more rights and opportunities for themselves. They wanted to have access to education, work, culture, and politics. They wanted to have more autonomy and independence over their bodies, their s